"German settlements On the periphery of the Russian Empire, the Caucasus: a view through the world (1818-1917) (towards the 190th anniversary of the founding of German colonies) MOSCOW - 2008
German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire.
The monograph is a comprehensive study of the problem of the formation of German settlements in the Caucasus and the corresponding imperial policy. The main attention is paid to the reasons for resettlement, the formation of colonies in Wurttemberg in Georgia and the specificity of their socioeconomic and religious life, administrative and spiritual management of the colonists. Based on the archival materials and legislation of the empire, the provisions of the Caucasian Committee examined the position of the government and the actions of the local administration in relation to the colonies, in particular to provide support for the economic and socio-cultural adaptation of the Swabians, and also for the liquidation of the landed estates and immovable property of the German immigrants in the Caucasian viceroyalty Years of the First World War. The issue of the relationship between the Germans and the local population is touched upon.
Conceptually, the approaches to highlighting the main periods and stages of the resettlement of Germans and Mennonites, during their internal migration and insignificant immigration in a powerful stream of settlers to the North Caucasus, and the role of the German factor in colonization and the development of its territory are conceptually outlined.
The originality of the self-initiated German settlements that arose in the first half of the nineteenth century is shown. on state and later - mainly on leased and purchased private lands.
The time has come for a new reading of the history of Russia's "domination" in this region, complementing the traditional themes of the Caucasian war, Russian colonization, reform, etc. less studied aspects - such as the exodus (mukhajirstvo) of the mountaineers from the Caucasus to Turkey, ethnic tensions, etc. In particular, the plots of the economic development of the Caucasian frontier, frontier (German frontier) by the German settlers. The direction chosen by us - the German colonies as an object of investigation - is only an apparent "small-arm". The study of the Caucasus enclave of colonies makes it possible to more fully reveal the essence of the state migration and resettlement policy, interethnic relations and to specify the multifaceted process of forming a regional society.
This comparative historical study is intended to reveal the totality of the reasons for resettlement, the specifics of sociocultural adaptation and the life of the Germans in Transcaucasia (taking into account the weak ties between the enclaves of the German colonies in the empire), the management of the colonies, in particular the spiritual, to clarify their place and role in economic development and the impact on the process of mutual assimilation of cultural skills in contact with different groups of the population of the region. These stories complement the writing of the full picture of the history of Russian Germans. This is the task. The chronological scope of the work is determined by the very course of historical events: the resettlement of the Germans in 1817/1818. and the end of the empire in 1917. The historico-chronological approach is based on the presentation and architectonics of the book.
German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire Mobility and the formation of the borders of the Caucasus region (which consistently included the North Caucasus), repeated changes in its administrative and territorial division and the reform of the management system during the period under study, the polyethnicity of the Caucasus and the mutual influence of ethnic cultures in their ethno-confessional differences, immigration Germans and resettlement policy - all regional processes can be understood only in the context of the history of the state. The Empire is long gone, but studying its history is not only of academic interest. This is both a tribute to historical memory, and the task of today in overcoming the stereotype of the "evil empire" in the consciousness of its modern neighbors.
In the historiography the term "new imperial history of the post-Soviet space" arose. The formation in the Caucasus of three sovereign Transcaucasian republics and the entry of the North Caucasus into the Russian Federation puts this issue in the plane of their real mutual relations, overcoming a partial crisis of confidence. And from this position, the urgency of researching the general and the special in the position of the Russian Germans becomes obvious. Studying of historical experience and various spheres of activity of "Caucasian"
German colonists clarify the process of socio-economic and socio-cultural adaptation of the outgoing group, the problem of living and coexistence in a different ethno-confessional environment, which allows us to identify the nature of tolerance of relations with the local population.
The knowledge of past history is intended to help build up modern trusting relationships in the world community, expand all-round contacts. The relevance of this study is also that it allows us to consider the historical roots of the relationship between Germany and the Caucasus, the contact between two worlds, two different civilizations and cultures (West and East). The difficulty of clarifying the issue is that it should be viewed through the prism of Russian-German relations, since the Caucasus region was part of the Russian Empire. The scientific interest in the subject is determined by the absence in the modern Russian historiography of a deep comprehensive study of the Germans who lived in the Caucasus.
The appearance of German immigrants in the Transcaucasian region of the empire, which was called in the early nineteenth century. "Georgia", became possible due to its voluntary entry into the Russian state. Even under the Georgian tsar Irakli II, who sought to defend the independence of his people from Persia, in the summer of 1783 Georgievsky's treatise on Russia's protectorate over Eastern Georgia was signed.3 [On the 200th anniversary of this date in Georgievsk, the Stavropol Territory of the Russian Federation (former center of the first Caucasian vicegerency , and then - the Caucasian province) installed a stele in memory of this event.] Territorial reunification of Georgia with Russia occurred later. Shortly before his death, Georgii XIII Bagrationi (1746-1800) sent a delegation to St. Petersburg with a request to accept Kartli-Kakheti under protection, to "eternal citizenship."
The petition of the envoys was approved, Paul I signed on December 18, 1800 Manifesto (in which, however, bypassed the issue of the dynastic rights of the Bagration). Announced January 18, 1801 Manifesto "On the annexation of the Georgian kingdom to Russia" was announced on February 17 in all Georgian and Armenian churches of Tiflis.4 Thus, the Kartli-Kakheti kingdom lost its independence, turning into one of the outskirts of the empire. The Manifesto served as a starting point for the gradual planting of the Russian military administrative system, which became the backbone in the conquest and economic development of the entire Caucasian region.
The Manifesto served as a starting point for the gradual planting of the Russian military administrative system, which became the backbone in the conquest and economic development of the entire Caucasian region.
After Paul's death, the Supreme Georgian Government in Tiflis was established by the decree of Alexander I on behalf of the Government of the Senate of September 12, 1801. "It is not for the increment of strength, not for self-interest, nor for spreading the limits, and so already the most extensive in the light of the Empire, that we take upon ourselves the burden of ruling the kingdom of Georgia; united dignity, common honor and humanity impose on us a sacred duty, taking care of the suffering of the suffering, in the abhorrence of their sorrows, to establish in Georgia a government that could establish justice ... and give everyone protection of the law. " Formed by decree of March 6, 1801, the Georgian province, divided into two provinces, was abolished.
The Manifesto On the Establishment of Internal Control of Georgia defined its structure: supreme power, military and civil, in Georgia and the North Caucasus, was concentrated in the hands of the Commander-in-Chief, commander of the Independent Georgian Corps. He was appointed directly by the emperor and was simultaneously the Chief Executive of Georgia and the head of the Astrakhan region and the Caucasus province, which was separated from it in 1802. 5 During his absence, Tiflis military governor, an assistant, replaced him. Local government was transferred to the Governor (civil governor) and the Supreme Georgian Government, which consisted of 4 "expeditions" and the General Meeting. May 8, 1802 the solemn opening of the Government was held. In these first normative acts, the attitudes of a future national policy and management are similar - similar to the general one. 5 During his absence he was replaced by the Tiflis military governor, an assistant. Local government was transferred to the Governor (civil governor) and the Supreme Georgian Government, which consisted of 4 "expeditions" and the General Meeting. May 8, 1802 the solemn opening of the Government was held. In these first normative acts, the attitudes of a future national policy and management are similar - similar to the general one. 5 During his absence he was replaced by the Tiflis military governor, an assistant. Local government was transferred to the Governor (civil governor) and the Supreme Georgian Government, which consisted of 4 "expeditions" and the General Meeting. May 8, 1802 the solemn opening of the Government was held. In these first normative acts, the attitudes of a future national policy and management are similar - similar to the general one.
Objectively, the entry of Eastern Georgia into a full protectorate (without the abandonment of power to Prince David) was a prerequisite for the introduction of Russian order and the introduction of troops, as all new territories were annexed to the Caucasus. Thus, according to the Bucharest Peace Treaty of 1812, the Ottoman Empire (Porta) accepted the annexation of Western Georgia to Russia and a protectorate over Abkhazia; with the signing of a peace treaty in Gyulustan in October 1813. Persia (Iran) recognized Dagestan, Karabakh, Shirvan, Baku and Derbent khanates in Russian possession.
Only by the 1830s the accession to Russia of the main territories of the Transcaucasian region was completed. Turkmanchay Peace Treaty of 1828 with German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire by Persia secured for Russia Erivan and the Nakhichevan Khanate; Adrianople 1829 with Turkey - all the Black Sea coast to Poti. Accordingly, in the face of confrontation with Turkey and Persia, overcoming the resistance of the mountain peoples, the primary task in the administration of such an important geopolitically important region was the strengthening of power, and sometimes with force of arms, and only then, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century, its economic and economic development and development.
In this difficult situation in 1817-1818, an unusual event occurred in Transcaucasia: the migration of Swabians - peasants and craftsmen from the Wirthemberg Kingdom (according to the spelling of that time) to Georgia and the formation of German colonies. Their descendants today, like the urban Germans, live with memories of their ancestors, their stories, confirmed letters and photographs, although much of this valuable heritage is lost. They recognize one Motherland - Georgia and Azerbaijan, returning here even after the tragedy of deportation from the republic in 1941.
Katharinenfeld (now Bolnisi, Georgia)
In the note of People's Commissar of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs L. Beria, the figure of 48375 Germans residing in the three Soviet republics of Transcaucasia is called, of which 29609 are rural residents. According to GKO Resolution No. 744 cc of October 8, 1941, 23,580 Germans were to be relocated from the Georgian SSR on October 15-30, from Azerbaijan - 22741, from the Armenian - to 212 people, with resettlement in the Kazakh SSR. In case of refusal, it was necessary to resettle in compulsory order, and "arrest the anti-Soviet element from among the Germans." 6 How did the fate of these thousands of innocent people develop? These pages of history deserve a separate study. It should be noted that part of the "Caucasian" Germans left after the war to their historical homeland in Germany, where they met regularly from 1952 (Kaukasiertreffen).
Three volumes of memories and photo documents about the past life of the Germans in the Caucasus and experienced in deportation in Kazakhstan, in the "labor army" have been collected and published today. It seems more appropriate to integrate the subjects of the historiography of the problem in the text of the book. However, a brief review of it gives an idea of the degree of study of the topic. Questions of immigration motivation, government relations, the history of settlements, their material and spiritual culture, the dynamics of the number of German colonists in Transcaucasia, which became an integral part of its ethno-confessional picture, were covered in Russian and foreign historiography, in official chronicles, statistics and in the press. Thus, rich factual and statistical material in articles (pre-revolutionary period) P. Basikhin, N. Nikiforov, A. Parvitsky, I. Bakhtadze, S. Smirnov is widely attracted by researchers today.
The book by Pastor M. Schrenk, written on behalf of the Synod on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Transcaucasian colonies, is one of the most noteworthy. It is a history based largely on church archives.8 The Caucasus Department The Imperial German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire by whom the Russian Geographical Society governor of the Caucasus), had the merit of describing and mapping the region, publishing such multivolume, reference-by-nature publications as "Izvestiya Kavkazskogo Imperial Russkogo on the geographical society "(1872-1917)," Collection of materials for the description of the localities and tribes of the Caucasus "(1881-1915). They carry information on the German colonists as a "Collection of Information on the Caucasus" in 9 volumes (1871-1886), a multivolume edition of materials on the study of the economic life of the state peasants of the Transcaucasian region, as well as individual articles in the journals Kavkazsky Vestnik, Russkiy Vestnik, Vestnik Evropy, Magazines of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Moscow State Institute of Foreign Affairs. Undoubtedly, the continuing importance of the works of S. Esadze and V. Ivanitsky on the development of civil administration in the Caucasus, which recreates the general background and administrative tools, is still undisputed.
Part of the problem of German settlers was paid attention in the press, for example, articles about them appeared in the newspaper "Kavkaz". The only newspaper in German "Kaukasische Post" ("Caucasian Post"), 1906-1918, covered the daily life, life and concerns of the colonies in the Caucasus region. Valuable as a reference book is K. Fisher's book - a detailed review of publications in this newspaper about settler Germans in the Caucasus. Of interest is the cycle of articles by the employee of the newspaper A. Fufalov on the formation of the Swabian colonies in Transcaucasia, published under the pseudonym "A.F." during the period of the heat of anti-German sentiments.9 The author referred to the documents of the archives of the Caucasian viceroyalty. Periodicals such as the "Caucasian Calendar" yearbook, local chronicles and the press carried important additional information, in particular, on demography.
The source of the most reliable statistics is the First General Census of the Empire in 1897 and the census in 1917. Information on the cultural and economic status of the 15 Transcaucasian colonies contains a pamphlet published during the war. Attitude to this heritage changed little, because The "German" theme was virtually absent in the Caucasus studies after 1921. In the early Soviet period, J. Hummel's pamphlet appeared, which covered 18 German settlements. The well-known Soviet scholar-dialectologist V.M. Zhirmunsky, who headed a scientific expedition to the Transcaucasian colonies in the summer of 1928, published conclusions on the modernization of the Swabian dialect. At the same time, a brochure was published about the local center of ethnographic works - the Museum of Local History (Elenendorf), organized by J. Hummel. Then, after a long figure of silence, only in the early 1970s. in Tbilisi there was in fact the only study by G.Kh. Manjgaladze about the German colonists in Transcaucasia, though not free from the anti-German attacks and approaches of his time. But the author has sounded on the archival materials the economic and cultural heritage of the colonists. The same story became the head of his doctoral dissertation. Published in Georgian German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire language, these works remain inaccessible (like the works of G. Burchuladze and P. Gugushvili) .12 Now they have become the property of foreign historiography.
Of the numerous works on the topic published in different years in Germany, today many are actually outside the field of vision of modern researchers. According to the nature of the work, two directions can be distinguished here.
First, the reports of scientists and the traveler's impressions of the Caucasian trips, bearing the first information about the German colonies.13 Secondly, the works of researchers, journalism. The general background of events, the political and economic situation in Württemberg are reflected in its re-published history.14
A number of scientific papers are devoted to various issues of emigration of Germans (Auswanderungsforschung) to the South of Russia and the Caucasus. First of all, it should be mentioned the theses of G. Leibbrandt and H. Becker, in which the prerequisites, reasons and course of resettlement, the development of the separatist movement and the position of the local authorities of the kingdom are analyzed in detail on the basis of local archival materials. It was Leibbrandt who created the main storyline (legend) of immigration of the Swabians in Transcaucasia,
V. Hippel, having considered the goals, causes and main directions of emigration from Württemberg for two centuries, cited in numerous tables and graphs interesting statistical data on the professional and sex and age structure of those who left for Russia. In the articles of the historian of the Church, Pastor G. Petri, religious motives of emigration to southern Russia are revealed. The author especially singled out from the mass of emigrants a group of Schwabs-Chileans who aspired to Palestine, published their appeals, revealed their religious views. In a serious work on the emigration of Germans to Russia in 1763-1826, based on archival acts and statistical materials, K. Stumpp characterizes the movement to the Caucasus in the general flow of migrants.
Particularly valuable work is the number of sources he has presented for the study of emigration from Württemberg: local laws, reports and tables, roll-call lists from the Ministry of the Interior, articles from the newspaper Schwbischer Merkur, descriptions by the participants of the journey. The economic situation of the colonies at the threshold of the twentieth century. and the development of agricultural production is covered in P. Hoffmann's book, written as a whole on the basis of personal impressions. True, the author gives a historical digression of the migration and establishment of the colonies. In the same spirit of personal perception, Count von Schweinitz gave a description of the history, life and daily life of the colony of Jelenendorf. In a deeply analytical study of the evolution over 100 years of inheritance (in the yard) of colonists in Russia, T. Hummel used rich statistical material on the Caucasian colonies, and in the annex he published the Charter of Colonists (1857 ed.) in German.16 Among the flow of literature about the German colonists in Russia, apparently, should be with a certain degree of caution and critical of the German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire to accept the works of the pre-war time, 30-ies, which had a propagandistic orientation in search of "Germanism" ("Deutschtum") abroad. It is characteristic that German historiography largely compensates for our gaps in the study of the German archives. The research is based on the documents of the state archives of Ludwigsburg, Stuttgart (materials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Württemberg, Russian consulates), lists of names of travelers (and their families), destination and purpose are often given. However, the archives of Russia remained practically inaccessible to scientists and not used - Leibbrandt and Stumpp published in the annex a number of documents in translation from Russian. Merit D. Brandes in the discovery and reading of Russian archival materials refers to the early 90's. The problem of German immigration to Russia during the reign of Alexander I was touched upon by I. Fleischhauer in his generalized, with a small dose of analysis, monograph.18 A scientific approach to the development of issues of settlement and economic development of the Transcaucasian colonies is characteristic of the works of E.-M. Auch, who deeply investigated the migration and industrial activities of the German colonists of Azerbaijan. Fleischhauer in his generalizing, with a small dose of analysis, monographs.18 A scientific approach to the development of issues of settlement and economic development of the Transcaucasian colonies is characteristic of the works of E.-M. Auch, who deeply investigated the migration and industrial activities of the German colonists of Azerbaijan. Fleischhauer in his generalizing, with a small dose of analysis, monographs.18 A scientific approach to the development of issues of settlement and economic development of the Transcaucasian colonies is characteristic of the works of E.-M. Auch, who deeply investigated the migration and industrial activities of the German colonists of Azerbaijan.
Her merit also lies in posing the problem of their relationship with the local population. Articles, memoirs and descriptions with interesting details of the life of various colonies in the Caucasus present the edition of the Zemstvo of the Russian Germans in Germany "Heimatbuch" ("The Book of the Motherland"), although the factology in it sometimes requires clarification. Contemporary researchers of the problem paid much attention to the aspects of church history, sectarianism, the spiritual dispatch to resettlement to the Caucasus, the organization of the activities of Basel missionaries among the colonists - the works of A. Gross (on the example of the colony of Ekaterinenfeld, 1818), R. Fell, P. Haygis. The Bishop of the Church of Reconciliation in Tbilisi, G. Hummel, who made a real contribution to its construction and opening, to the revival of the modern German community, considered in a short outline the history of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Georgia. In the newest foreign historiography of the Transcaucasian German colonies in the post-Soviet space, a tendency has emerged-an energetic study of their role in Azerbaijani history and some oblivion of the thousands of fates of the "Georgian" colonists. A notable interest in the subject was manifested in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the early 1990s. This is evidenced by the materials of the international scientific conference of 1997 in Baku and Ganja, a number of monographs and articles by K. Aliev, T. Akhundova, H.-J. Verdiyeva, T. Gumbatova, M. Jafarli, S. Zeynalova, N. Ibragimova, etc. The first attempt was made to give a general analysis of the history, from settlement to deportation, of the German urban and rural population in the Caucasus as a single geopolitical space, including the North Caucasus. German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire However, with all the positive, in general, there was a certain shift in one direction: the coverage of the role of the German colonies in Azerbaijan, as it were, left them in the shadow of their importance in Georgia. Against this background, it is encouraging to note the publication of the book by D. Springngorn. The publication, based on the questionnaire, of German memories of Tbilisi about the fate of their families, is undoubtedly of scientific interest, but the question of the German colonies is only touched upon in the introductory essay. There was a desire to recreate the history of individual colonies - Elizavetal and Katarinenfeld, which replenishes the arsenal of factology and is a tribute to their memory. Absolutely unique is A. Tsutsiev's work - the publication of "Atlas ...", whose maps allow you to visually trace the ethnopolitical and ethno-confessional history of the Caucasus expressed in time and space for more than 200 years, reflected also in textual accompaniment. 24 The first collection of documents of the highest authorities and military command concerning the German population of the empire (1652-1917), comp. V. Dizendorf. But all this does not replace the serious comprehensive study of the history of settlements lacking in the latest Russian historiography and the analysis of the legal field and vital activity of the Germans in the Caucasus region.
For a number of reasons, this has not received due attention to date. Today there is a search for a concept (at the crossroads of opinions), a search for the place of this topic in the Caucasus. A new approach to the question of the historical geography of the region, the essence and periodization of "German colonization" has been outlined, and the role of A.P. Ermolov and the specifics of the formation of colonies in the territory of Georgia proper.26 However, a comprehensive study of this problem has not yet received an adequate expression of its own in either domestic or foreign historiography. This fact, like the jubilee of the 190th anniversary of the founding of the German colonies in Transcaucasia, prompted a more detailed coverage of the history of their creation and development, state policy, the position of the ruling circles, the identification of the specifics of the spiritual and administrative management of the colonies, peculiarities of the formation of their socio-cultural appearance, etc. At the same time, in the center of attention, as a step towards scientific generalizations in a comprehensive plan, there are mainly less studied German settlements in Georgia.
The task is solved, firstly, on the basis of an analysis of the legislative framework of the Russian Empire, decrees and legal acts, resolutions of the Committee and the Council of Ministers collected in three editions of the Complete Assembly of the Laws of the Russian Empire and the Meeting of Governmental Orders and Orders. Secondly, the foundation of the work is a complex of sources, a significant layer of archival documents. Thus, it is difficult to overestimate the significance of the publication in 12 volumes of collected and systematized documents of the Office of the Vicegerency of the Caucasus, named - the Acts of the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission (ACAK). This is the largest among the pre-German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire of revolutionary publications of the sources of the fundamental edition, edited by A.P. Berger, undertaken by a special commission set up in Tiflis, covers the period from 1799 to 1862. and contains documents directly relating to the German colonies in the Caucasus. (The 13th volume was prepared, but not published and kept in a special fund 416 in the archive of Tbilisi.) The arsenal of them has been studied sketchily. The scientific novelty of this research is determined by the source base. It should be noted that since 2007, in view of the reorganization of the management of the archives of the Republic of Georgia, they were united under the aegis of a single directorate in the National Archive of Georgia. The analysis of a wide range of documents of the National Archive of Georgia, specifically the Central Historical Archive (Tbilisi), which was often first introduced into scientific circulation, allowed to expand the scope of ideas about the formation of German colonies and internal migrations of colonists, management specifics, benefits and government incentives, , the efforts of the administration to eliminate the immovable property of German settlers in the Tiflis province during the First World War, etc. First of all, it is important to name such funds as F. 2 - Office of the Chief Executive of the Transcaucasian region, F. 12 - Office of the Chief Civilian in the Caucasus, F.F. . 4 and 13 - the Chancellery of the Viceroy of the Caucasus, containing documents of central and local authorities and administrations, the Most Beloved Records, circulars and orders, etc.
Of great value are F. 225 - the Georgian Office; F.F. 226 and 227 - Ranger of the German colonies in the Caucasus, F. 222 - Commission for Settlement in the Transcaucasian Region; F. 243 - Authorized Minister of the Ministry of State Property and Agriculture in the Caucasus.
They accommodated an impressive volume of administrative and reporting documents: reports, annual reports and reports of the Colonel Caretaker, inspection reports, petitions, instructions, circulars, etc. An important source of information are cameral descriptions (censuses), lists of colonists. Funds 1692 and 1728 - the Ober-pastor of the Transcaucasian German colonies - contain extensive correspondence, in particular, the chief pastor from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and other materials that have not been fully studied, including those in German.
Full view of this photo: https://www.germansfromrussiasettlementlocations.org/2016/11/
Involving a wide range of primary sources, along with scientific and reference literature, made it possible to undertake a comparative analysis and throw a retrospective vzjad through a century, revealing the historical and legal aspect and the basis of state policy towards the German settlements in Transcaucasia. For the first time, the position and degree of integration of the German colonists in the territory of Georgia, in the Tiflis gubernia, which was before 1917, was examined in greater depth and detail.
1 German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire Notes 1 Ismail-Zade DI Count I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov. The Viceroy of the Caucasus - M., - S. 380. aka: I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov is an administrator, a reformer. - St. Petersburg., 2008.
2 North Caucasus in the Russian Empire - M .: 2007 - P. 17. From the series "HISTORIA ROSSIСA" (The Outskirts of the Russian Empire), ed. A.I. Miller. See also: National outskirts of the Russian Empire: formation and development of the management system - M. 1997. (Chapter VI Caucasus)
3 St. George's treatise. Treaty of 1783 on the accession of Eastern Georgia under the auspices of Russia. - Tbilisi, 1983 - P. 69-83. (in Russian and Georgian) See also: National outskirts of the Russian Empire. - Moscow: 1997 - P. 245-246.
4 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire (hereinafter referred to as "PSZ"). Ed. I, St. Petersburg., 1830.
T. XXVI. No. 19,721.
5 Ibid.: Nos. 20.007 and 20009 and T. XXVI. № 19.770. In November 1802, the Caucasian gubernia was again separated from Astrakhan (the seat of the Commander-in-Chief - Georgievsk). See: PSZ-I. T. XXVII. No. 20.511.
6 Stalin's deportations. 1928-1953 / Under the Society. Ed. A.N. Yakovleva. Comp. N.L. Pobol, P.M. Polyan - M: MFD: The Mainland, 2005. - P. 354-357.
7 Vom Kaukasus nach Kasachstan. Deutsche Drfer, Schicksale in Erinnerungen und Bildern. Hrsg. Edgar Reitenbach. Bd. 1-3. - Duisburg, 2003, 2004, 2007.
8 Schrenk, M. Fr. Geschichte der deutschen Colonien in Transkaukasien. - Tiflis, 1869.
9 Fischer, Karl August. Kaukasische Post. Leipzig, 1944 (Sammlung G. Leibbrandt, Bd.10);
Kaukasische Post (Tiflis). (von AF) Die Einwanderung der Deutschen nach Transkaukasien.
1913. Nos. 2-4, 6-14 and 1906. Nos. 3, 5;
10 Information on the cultural and economic status of the colonies in the Transcaucasian region - Pg. 1916.
11 Hummel J. Heimatbchlein der Deutschen in Transkaukasien - Pokrowsk:
Nemrosizdat, 1928; ders .: Das Heimatkundliche Museum zu Helenendorf - Moskau. Ztr.Vlkerverlag, 1929; Schirmunski V. Die schwbischen Mundarten in Transkaukasien und Sdukraine. - Teuthonista. Bd. V. 1928-1929; Zhirmunsky V.M. Results and tasks of dialectological and ethnographic study of German settlements of the USSR // Soviet ethnography. 1933. № 2. - P. 84-93.
12 Manjgaladze G.H. German colonists in Transcaucasia (1817-1920). Author's abstract ... cand. east. sciences. - Tbilisi, 1970; he: the German colonists in Transcaucasia (1817-1920). - Tbilisi, 1974 (in Georgian); he: German capital in Transcaucasia (1860-1918). Author's abstract ... Doct. east. sciences. - Tbilisi, 1991; See: P. Gugushvili German colonists and local peasants. - Tbilisi, 1946 (in Georgian); Burchuladze G. German settlements in Transcaucasia - Tiflis, 1911 (in Georgian) 13 Koch, K. Reise in Grusien, am Kaspischen Meere und im Kaukasus. - Weimar: Druck u.
Verlag des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1847; ders .: Wanderungen im Oriente whrend der Jahre 1843 und 1844. Bd. 3 - Weimar, 1847; Wagner, Moritz: Reise nach Kolchis und nach den deutschen Colonien jenseits des Kaukasus. - Leipzig, 1850; Kolenati, FA
Reiseerinnerungen. 1. Teil: Die Bereisung Hocharmeniens und Elisabethpols. - Dresden, 1858 ua
14 Wrttembergische Geschichte im sdwestdeutschen Raum. von K. Weller u. A. Weller.
15 Leibbrandt, Georg. Die Auswanderung aus Schwaben nach Russland 1816-1823. Ein schwbisches Zeit- und Charakterbild. - Stuttgart, 1928 (Schriften des Deutschen Auslands-Institutes Stuttgart, Bd. 21); Becker, Heinz H. Die Auswanderung aus Wrttemberg nach Sdruland. 1816 - 1830 - Tbingen, 1962; Hippel, Wolfgang, von. Auswanderung aus Sdwestdeutschland: Studien zur wrttembergischen Auswanderung und Auswanderungspolitik im 18. u. 19. Jh. (Bd. 36) - Stuttgart, 1984; Petri, Hans. Schwbische Chiliasten in Sdruland. In: Kirche im Osten.Studien zur osteuropischen Kirchengeschichte und Kirchenkunde. Bd. V. - Stuttgart, 1962 - S. 76-96; ders. Zur Geschichte der Auswanderung aus Wrttemberg nach Ruland. In: Bltter fr wrttembergische Kirchengeschichte. 57. Jg. 1957, S. 373-379; Stumpp, Karl. Ostwanderung.
Akten ber die Auswanderung der Wrttemberger nach Ruland 1816-1822. - Leipzig, 1941. (Sammlung Georg Leibbrandt, Bd. 2; Quellen zur Erforschung des Deutschtums in Osteuropa); ders .: Die Auswanderung aus Deutschland nach Ruland 1763-1826. - Tbingen, 1972.
16 Hoffmann, Peter. Die deutschen Kolonien in Transkaukasien. - Berlin, 1905;
Schweinitz, HH. Graf von: Helenendorf. Eine deutsche Kolonie im Kaukasus. - Berlin, 1910;
Hummel, Theodor. 100 Jahre Erbhofrecht der deutschen Kolonisten in Russland - Berlin, 1918 (1936);
17 For example, articles in the yearbook: Der Wanderweg der Rulanddeutschen. Jahrbuch der Hauptstelle fr die Sippenkunde des Deutschtums im Ausland. - Stuttgart u. Bern.
18 Brandes, Detlef. Von den Zaren adoptiert. Die deutschen Kolonisten und Balkansiedler in Neuruland und Bessarabien.1751-1914. - R. Oldenburg-Verlag, Mnchen, 1993;
Fleischhauer, Ingeborg. Die Deutschen im Zarenreich. - Stuttgart, 1986.
19 Auch E.-M. German colonists in Transcaucasia // Russian Germans on the Don, the Caucasus and the Volga - M., 1995. - P. 101-119; it is the same: Entrepreneurship of German colonists in Azerbaijan // Materials of the First Int. sci. Conf. "Caucasian Germans - Germans in the Caucasus before the First World War" 22-25 Sept. 1997. Baku-Ganja.
- Baku: "Elm", 2001 - pp. 222-251; Auch, Eva-Maria. Deutsche Kolonisten als Unternehmer im Kaukasus. In: "... das einzige Land in Europa, das eine groe Zukunft vor sich hat." Deutsche Unternehmen und Unternehmer im Russischen Reich im 19. und frhen 20. Jahrhundert.
- Hrsg. von Dahlmann D. / Scheide C. - Essen, 1998. - S. 589-610; dies .: Deutsche Kolonisten im multiethnischen Umfeld Transkaukasiens. In: Lebens- und Konfliktraum Kaukasien. Hrsg. von E.-M. Auch.- Edition Barkau-Grobarkau, 1996; dies .: l und Wein im Kaukasus. Deutsche Forschungsreisende, Kolonisten und Unternehmer im vorrevolutionren Aserbaidschan - Wiesbaden, 2001 ua
20 Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Ruland. Hsg. von der Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Ruland. - Stuttgart. Siehe: Jg. 1957, 1961, 1965, 1967/1968 ua
21 Gro, Andreas. Missionare und Kolonisten: Die Basler und die Hermannsburger Mission in Georgien am Beispiel der Kolonie Katharinenfeld. 1818-1870. (Studien zur Orientalischen Kirchengeschichte, Bd. 6) - Hamburg: Lit, 1998; Fll, Renate. Sehnsucht nach Jerusalem. Zur Ostwanderung schwbischer Pietisten. - Tbingen, 2002; Haigis, Peter / Hummel, Gert. Schwbische Spuren im Kaukasus: Auswandererschicksale. - SternbergVerlag. - Metzingen, 2006.
22 Akhundova T. Germans-colonists of Azerbaijan 19 - the beginning of 20 centuries. - Baku: Izdvo Shusha, 1999; Verdiyeva H.-U. The resettlement policy of the Russian Empire in Northern Azerbaijan - Baku, 1999; Ibragimov N.A. German pages of history German settlements on the periphery of the Russian Empire of Azerbaijan. - Baku, 1995; Jafarli M. Political terror and the fate of Azerbaijani Germans. - Baku, 1998; he: Germans in Azerbaijan - Baku, 1998; Materials of the first international scientific conference "Caucasian Germans - Germans in the Caucasus before the First World War". September 22-25, 1997. Baku-Ganja-Baku: Elm, 2001;
Zeynalova S. German colonies in Azerbaijan (1819-1941) - Baku, 2002; it's the same:
The Germans in the Caucasus. Baku: Mutargim, 2008; Aliev K. Schwaby and Azerbaijan - Baku, 2003; Gumbatova T. Life of the German colonists in the Caucasus - Baku, 2005, etc.
23 Springhorn, Daphne. Deutsche in Georgien. Hrsg. vom Goethe-Institut Tbilissi - Tbilissi, 2004; Udsulaschwili, Ekaterine. Die deutschen Kolonisten in Georgien (ElisabethtalAsureti, 1818-1941) - Tbilisi, 2006; Allmendinger, Ernst. Katharinenfeld, ein deutsches Dorf im Kaukasus. 1818-1941 - Selbstverlag, 2006.
24 Tsutsiev A. Atlas of the ethnopolitical history of the Caucasus (1774-2004). - Moscow: Izd. Europe, 2006.
25 The Germans in the history of Russia: Documents of the highest authorities and military command. 1652-1917 / Comp. V.F. Dizendorf _ M .: MFD: Mainland, 2006. (Series: Russia, the 20th century, Documents, edited by Academician AN Yakovlev) 26 The Encyclopedia "The Germans of Russia." T. 1-3. Moscow: Izd. "ERN". 1999, 2004, 2006. Chernova Т.N. Russian Germans. The national bibliography of 1991-2000. - M., 2001; she: From the history of the formation of German settlements in the North Caucasus // Key problems of the history of Russian Germans. Mather. 10th Intl. sci. Conf. Moscow, November 18 - 2003 - M., 2004; Chernova-Deke TN German colonies in Georgia: the specifics of formation, management and economic life (1817-1917) // The Russian state, society and ethnic Germans: the main stages and the nature of the relationship (XVIII-XXI centuries). Materials 11th Int. sci. Conf. Moscow, November 1-3, 2006 - M., 2007 - S. 108-135; she: Position and role of A.P. Ermolova in the formation of the German colonies in Transcaucasia // Domestic history. 2008. № 1. P. 13-25 and others.
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